Resources

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Identifying the plants of the Bible is by no means a precise endeavor. We consulted the following resources on a regular basis, forming a consensus from the information provided in these books and websites to determine which species to feature. From there we focused on the specific references cited individually by plant.

Photo credit: © Knud Nielsen | Dreamstime.com

Books & Articles:

Munk, Michael L. The Wisdom in the Hebrew Alphabet. Brooklyn: Mesorah, 1983.

Paterson, John and Katherine Paterson. Consider the Lilies: Plants of the Bible. New York: Crowell, 1986.

Swenson, Allan A. Plants of the Bible and How to Grow Them. New York: Carol, 1994.

Trusty, Steve. “Tilling the Soil…with Trusty Tips®,” a monthly gardening column originally appearing in The Heartland Gatekeeper. 2003-2007. Soon to be available at www.trustytips.com.

Walker, Winfred. All Plants of the Bible. New York: Harper, 1957.

Websites

Botanical.com, A Modern Herbal

Bible Encyclopedia

BiblicalGardens.com

Blue Letter Bible

First Congregational Church of Fair Haven, United Church of Christ, International Bible Garden

Flowers in Israel

Neot Kedumim, The Biblical Landscape Reserve in Israel

Old Dominion University Bible Plants

Plants for a Future

Wild Flowers of Israel

Yarah Ministries, “The Hebrew Alphabet, Old and New, The Written Word of Scripture.”

Sources for Specific Plants:

Almond

Books:

Oded Borowski, Agriculture in Iron Age Israel (Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 1987), pages 131 – 32
Carroll D. Bush, Nut Grower’s Handbook (New York: Orange Judd, 1941), pages 111 – 15
Bob Flowerdew, The Complete Book of Fruit (New York: Penguin, 1995), pages 192 – 93
Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium, Cornell University, Hortus Third (New York: Macmillan, 1976), pages 55, 918 – 919
Harold N. and Alma L. Moldenke, Plants of the Bible (Waltham, Mass.: Chronica Botanica, 1952), pages 35 – 38
Taylor’s Encyclopedia of Gardening, 3rd edition (H.M. Co.: 1956), pages 21 – 22
T.H. Everett, editor, New Illustrated Encyclopedia of Gardening, vol. 1 (New York: Greystone, 1960), page 45
John C. Wister, editor, Woman’s Home Companion Garden Book (New York: Doubleday, 1947), page 241
Michael Zohary, Plants of the Bible (Cambridge, Mass.: Cambridge University Press, 1982), pages 66 – 67

Autumn Crocus

Books:

T. H. Everett, editor, New Illustrated Encyclopedia of Gardening, vol. 3 (New York: Greystone, 1960), pages 500 – 02

Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium, Cornell University, Hortus Third (New York: Macmillan, 1976), page 294

Theodore James, A Year in the Garden (New York: Studio, 2003), pages 108-09

Janis Ruksans, Crocuses: A Complete Guide to the Genus (Portland, Ore.: Timber Press, 2010), pages 89-90

William C. Welch, Perennial Garden Color (Dallas: Taylor, 1989), pages 54, 55, 182

Websites:

Click the following links to see pages on Autumn Crocus:

Wild Flowers of Israel, Blue Letter Bible

 

Bay Laurel

Books:

Heidi Glidemeister, Gardening the Mediterranean Way (New York, Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 2004), see index for page references

Linda Gray, Herbs and Spices (New York, Skyhorse Publishing, 2011), pages 44-46

Harold N. and Alma L. Moldenke, Plants of the Bible (Waltham, Mass., Chronica Botanica Co., 1952), pages 123-24

David H. Stern, Jewish New Testament Commentary (Clarksville, Maryland, Jewish New Testament Publications, Inc.,1996), pages 148, 237, 547-48, 749, 795, 856, and 933. Stern pointed out that the core issue was “green and dry trees refer to the righteous and the wicked” (page 933).

Allan A. Swenson, Your Biblical Garden, Plants of the Bible and How to Grow Them (Garden City, New York, Doubleday & Co., 1981), pages 164-66;

Michael Zohary, Plants of the Bible (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1982), page 120

Websites:

Click the following links to see pages on bay laurel:

www.monrovia.com, McFadden Farm

 

Caper

Books:

Heidi Glidemeister, Gardening the Mediterranean Way (New York, Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 2004), see index for page references

Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium, Cornell University, Hortus Third, (New York, Macmillian Publishing Co., 1976), pages 218-219

Harold N. and Alma L. Moldenke, Plants of the Bible (Waltham, Mass., Chronica Botanica Co., 1952), pages 65-66

W.E. Shewell-Cooper, Plants, Flowers, and Herbs of the Bible: The Living Legacy of the Third Day of Creation, Oenoke Edition (New Canaan, Conn., Keats Publishing, Inc., 1988, originally published 1977), pages 32-33

Winifred Walker, All the Plants of the Bible (New York, Harper & Brothers, 1957) pages 70-71

Michael Zohary, Plants of the Bible (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1982), page 98

Websites:

Click the following links to see pages on caper:

Bayleaf.us; Caperplants.com; Flowers in Israel; Mountain Valley Growers; Top Tropicals 

Cedar of Lebanon

Books:

Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium, Cornell University, Hortus Third, (New York, Macmillian Publishing Co., 1976), pages 239, 304 – 05

Wilma Paterson, A Fountain of Gardens (New York, Overlook Press, 1992), pages 46 – 47

Michael Zohary, Plants of the Bible (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1982), pages 104 – 05

Websites:

Click the following links to see pages on cedar of Lebanon:

The Gymnosperm Database, North Carolina State University Cooperative ExtensionSalisbury University Arboretum

Chamomile

Books:

Jo Ann Gardner, Seeds of Transcendence: Understanding the Hebrew Bible Through Plants (Decalogue Books, Mt. Vernon, New York, 2014), pages 272-274

Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium, Cornell University, Hortus Third (New York, Macmillian Publishing Co., 1976), pages 82-83, 257, 301-303

George W. Johnson, The Cottage Gardener: Practical Guide in Every Department of Horticulture and Rural and Domestic Economy, Vol. IV (Wm S. Orr and Co., London, 1850), page 8

Websites:

Click the following links to see pages on chamomile:

Flowers in Israel, Gardening Know How, Grow Chamomile as a Lawn, Mother Earth Living, OutsidePride.com

 

Chicory

Books:

Sam Bittman, The Salad Lover’s Garden (New York, A Main Street Book, Published by Doubleday, 1992), pages 81-88

Geoff Hamilton, The Organic Garden Book (London, Dorling Kindersley, 1993), pages 146-48

Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium, Cornell University, Hortus Third (New York, Macmillian Publishing Co., 1976), pages 262,  303

Harold N. and Alma L. Moldenke, Plants of the Bible (Waltham, Mass., Chronica Botanica Co., 1952), pages 74-75

Websites: 

Click the following links for chicory information:

Epicurious.com,

Cinnamon

Books:

Harold N. and Alma L. Moldenke, Plants of the Bible (Waltham, Mass., Chronica Botanica Co., 1952), pages 148-49

Winfred Walker, All Plants of the Bible (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1957), pages 56-57

Michael Zohary, Plants of the Bible (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1982), page 202

Websites:

Click the following links to see pages on growing cinnamon:

Mother Earth Living, Urban Fig

Citron

Books:

Bob Flowerdew, The Complete Book of Fruit (New York: Penguin, 1995), pages 128-131

Jo Ann Gardner, Seeds of Transcendence: Understanding the Hebrew Bible Through Plants (Decalogue Books, Mt. Vernon, New York, 2014), pages 169-180

Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium, Cornell University, Hortus Third, (New York, Macmillian Publishing Co., 1976), pages 276-79

Alice Waters, Chez Panisse Fruit (New York, HarperCollins Publishers, 2002), pages 61-65

Michael Zohary, Plants of the Bible (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1982), page 123

Websites:

Click the following links to see pages on Citron:

Haaretz.comStaten Island, NY Live/homegarden

Coriander

Books:

Nancy Arrowsmith, Essential Herbal Wisdom (Woodbury, MN: Llewellyn, 2009),  pages 311 – 23

Rosalind Creasy, The Edible Herb Garden (Boston: Periplus Editions, 1999), pages 44-45

Linda Gray, Herbs and Spices (New York: Skyhorse, 2011), pages 23-26

Miranda Smith, Your Backyard Herb Garden (Emmaus, PA: Rodale, 1997), page 115.

Crown Anemone

Books:

L. H. Bailey, et al., Hortus Third (New York: Macmillan, 1976), page 75

T. H. Everett, New Illustrated Encyclopedia of Gardening, Vol. 1 (New York: Greystone Press, 1960), page 66

George Johnson, PhD, and Peter Raven, PhD, Holt Biology (New York: Holt, Reinhart, Winston, 2004), page 538

Winfred Walker, All Plants of the Bible (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1957), page 116

Websites:

Click the following links to see pages on Crown Anemones:

Brent and Becky’s Bulbs , Flowers in Israel

To picture how vivid an anemone-covered field near Jerusalem might have looked at the time of Luke 12:27, enjoy this photo by Yehiam Salts

 

Cucumber

Books:

Taylor’s Encyclopedia of Gardening, 3rd edition (New York: H.M. Co., 1956), pages 256 – 58

T. H. Everett, editor, New Illustrated Encyclopedia of Gardening, vol. 3 (New York: Greystone, 1960), pages 507 – 10

John C. Wister, editor, Woman’s Home Companion Garden Book (New York: Doubleday, 1947), page 748

Rosalind Creasy, Cooking From the Garden (San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1988), pages 160, 462, 463, 473

W. E. Shewell-Cooper, Plants, Flowers, and Herbs of the Bible: The Living Legacy of the Third Day of Creation, Oenoke edition (New Canaan, Conn.: Keats, 1988, originally published 1977), pages 57, 100

Duane A. Garrett, general editor, Archaeological Study Bible (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan, 2005), page 186

Cumin

Books:

L. H. Bailey, et al., Hortus Third (New York: Macmillan, 1976), page 344

Rosalind Creasy, Cooking From the Garden (San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1988), page 372

Winifred Walker, All the Plants of the Bible (New York, Harper & Brothers, 1957) pages 66-67

Michael Zohary, Plants of the Bible (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1982), page 88-89

Websites:

Click the following links to see pages on cumin:

www.floralencounters.comwww.outsidepride.com

Dandelions

Books:

Sam Bittman, The Salad Lover’s Garden (New York, A Main Street Book, Published by Doubleday, 1992), pages 108-10.

Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium, Cornell University, Hortus Third, (New York, Macmillian Publishing Co., 1976), pages 301, 362, 1097

Jo Ann Gardener, Seeds of Transcendence: Understanding the Hebrew Bible Through Plants (Mt. Vernon, New York, 2014), pages 106-09

Harold N. and Alma L. Moldenke, Plants of the Bible (Waltham, Mass., Chronica Botanica Co., 1952), page 74-75

Winfred Walker, All Plants of the Bible (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1957), pages 36-37

Click here to go to website pages on dandelion:

Alberta Native Plant Council,  Plants for a Future

Note: Taraxacum cyprium is a dandelion species native to the land of Israel, noted in NIV God’s Word for Gardeners Bible

Date Palm

Books:

Anonymous, The Scripture Garden Walk, Comprising The Botanical Exposition and Natural History of Every Plant Occurring in the Sacred Scriptures (London, J. Hatchard and Son, 1832), pages 225 – 34

Jo Ann Gardner, Seeds of Transcendence: Understanding the Hebrew Bible Through Plants (Mt. Vernon, New York, 2014), pages 173-76

Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium, Cornell University, Hortus Third (New York, Macmillian Publishing Co., 1976), pages 364, 812 – 14, 862 – 63

David L. Jones, Palms Throughout the World (Washington, D. C., Smithsonian Instituion Press, 1995), pages 17, 23 – 24, 49 – 50

Mrs. Almira Lincoln, Lectures on Botany (New York, F.J. Huntington, 1852), pages 112 – 114

H. B. Tristram, The Natural History of the Bible, Fourth Edition (London, Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1875), pages 378 – 86

Alice Waters, Chez Panisse Fruit (New York, HarperCollins Publishers, 2002), pages 79 – 83

Michael Zohary, Plants of the Bible (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1982), page 60 – 61

Websites:

Click the following links to see pages on date palm:

Flickr photo of off shoots for propagation, Hardy Palm Trees planting tips, growth rate in date palms

Endive

Books:

Sam Bittman, The Salad Lover’s Garden (New York, A Main Street Book, Published by Doubleday, 1992), pages 87-92

Geoff Hamilton, The Organic Garden Book (London, Dorling Kindersley, 1993), pages 146-48

Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium, Cornell University, Hortus Third (New York, Macmillian Publishing Co., 1976), pages 262,  303

Harold N. and Alma L. Moldenke, Plants of the Bible (Waltham, Mass., Chronica Botanica Co., 1952), pages 74-75

Websites: 

Click the following links for endive information:

Epicurious.com

Fig

Books:

Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium, Cornell University, Hortus Third, (New York, Macmillian Publishing Co., 1976), pages 477, 479

Bob Flowerdew, The Complete Book of Fruit (New York: Penguin, 1995), pages 54-55

T. H. Everett, ed., The New Illustrated Encyclopedia of Gardening (New York: Greystone, 1960), Volume 7: pages 685 – 86

Taylor’s Encyclopedia of Gardening, 3rd ed. (New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1948), pages 355 – 56

Alice Waters, Chez Panisse Fruit (New York: HarperCollins, 2002), pages 84 – 95

Websites:

Click the following links to see pages on fig trees:

www.Grow-Figs.comTexas A&M System AgriLife Extension 

Flax

Books:

Alice Morse Earle, Home Life in Colonial Days (New York, The MacMillian Co., 1989), pages 166 – 186
T. H. Everett, Editor, New Illustrated Encyclopedia of Gardening (New York, Greystone Press, 1960), Volume 4, page 691
Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium, Cornell University, Hortus Third (New York, Macmillian Publishing Co., 1976), pages 481, 668
Alastair I. MacKay, Farming and Gardening in the Bible (Emmaus, Penn., Rodale Press, 1950) pages 117 – 19
Harold N. and Alma L. Moldenke, Plants of the Bible (Waltham, Mass., Chronica Botanica Co., 1952), pages 129 – 133
W.E. Shewell-Cooper, Plants, Flowers, and Herbs of the Bible: The Living Legacy of the Third Day of Creation, Oenoke Edition (New Canaan, Conn., Keats Publishing, Inc., 1988, originally published 1977),
page 168 – 171
Winifred Walker, All the Plants of the Bible (New York, Harper & Brothers, 1957), page 82
John W. Wilkinson, Practical Agriculture (New York, American Book Co., 1909), pages 111 – 117

Anonymous, The Scripture Garden Walk, Comprising The Botanical Exposition and Natural History of Every Plant Occurring in the Sacred Scriptures (London, J. Hatchard and Son, 1832), pages 115 – 121

Websites:

Click the following links to see pages on Flax:

Deck Towel – making flax into linen, Flax and Hemp Project, Mother Earth LivingMaine Organic Farmers and Gardeners Association – on flax in chicken feed

Grapevine

Books:

Bush and Son and Meissner, Illustrated Descriptive Catalog of American Grape Vines
(St. Louis, MO: R. P. Studley, 1883), reprinted by Keesinger, Legacy Reprint Series, LaVergne, TN

T. H. Everett, editor, New Illustrated Encyclopedia of Gardening (New York: Greystone, 1960), Vol. 5, pages 784 – 95

T. V. Munson, Foundations of American Grape Culture (New York: Orange Judd, 1909)

Louise Riotte, Growing Berries and Grapes (Dallas: Taylor, 1993), pages 111 – 28

Lon Rombough, The Grape Grower (White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green, 2002)

Websites:

Click the following links to see pages on Grapevine:

Cooking with Grape Leaves, T.V. Munson book online

Thank you for personal visits and tours of:
www.delaneyvineyards.com, www.roberthunterwinery.com

 

 

Hyssop

Books:

Nogah Hareuveni, Tree and Shrub in Our Biblical Heritage, translated from Hebrew and adapted by Helen Frenkley (Neot Kedumim Ltd., Kiryat Ono, Israel, 1984), pages 107-122

 Websites:

Click the following links to see pages on hyssop:

Simon Khairallah, “Plant story – helping to conserve Origanum syriacum,”article posted at www.kew.orgOld Dominion University Bible Plants;  www.flowersinisrael.com;  www.horizonherbs.com; www.mountainvalleygrowers.com; www.theplantlist.org which confirms Origanum syriacum as Origanum maru;

Hebrew Lexicon of hyssop, see www.blueletterbible.org;

Origanum syriacum is also known as Majorana syriaca

Laurustinus

Books:

Michael Zohary, Plants of the Bible (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1982), page 112. The idea that tidhar  (Hebrew) in Isaiah verses 41:19 & 60:13 is represented by a large evergreen shrub and not a conifer came from this book.

Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium, Cornell University, Hortus Third, (New York, Macmillian Publishing Co., 1976), page 1155

Ben Arthur Davis, The Southern Garden (Philadelphia, J.B. Lippincott Co., 1971), page 87

Elizabeth Lawrence, A Southern Garden (Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press, 1991 Special Edition, first publishing 1942), page 23 – 24

Taylor’s Encyclopedia of Gardening, Third Edition (H.M. Co., 1956), pages 1162 – 63

Websites:

Click the following links to see pages about laurustinus (Viburnum tinus):

Flowers in IsraelMonrovia, Jeff Wortham on YouTube


Leeks

Books:

Marion Coonse, Onions, Leeks, and Garlic: A Handbook for Gardeners (College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1995)

Rosalind Creasy, Cooking from the Garden (San Francisco, Sierra Club, 1988)

Ted Jordan Meredith, The Complete Book of Garlic (Portland, OR., Timber Press, 2008)

Sarah Raven, The Great Vegetable Plot: Delicious Varieties to Grow and Eat (London: BBC Books, 2005)

Websites:

Click the following links to see pages on leeks:

Flowers in Israel; Wildflowers in IsraelCornell University Vegetable Growing Guide

Mustard

Books:

Sam Bittman, The Salad Lover’s Garden (New York: Doubleday, 1992), pages 46 – 47, 113 – 15
Dr. Sam Cotner, The Vegetable Book, A Texan’s Guide to Gardening (Waco, TX: TG Press, 1985), pages 178 – 87
Rosalind Creasy, Cooking from the Garden (San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1988), pages 404, 467 – 69
Paula Deen, Paula Deen’s Southern Cooking Bible (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2011), pages xvii-xxi, Introduction

Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium, Cornell University, Hortus Third (New York: Macmillan, 1976), pages 178 – 79, 338 – 39, 748

Alastair I. MacKay, Farming and Gardening in the Bible (Emmaus, PA: Rodale Press, 1950) page 49

H. B. Tristram, The Natural History of the Bible, 4th ed. (London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1875), pages 472 – 73

Michael Zohary, Plants of the Bible (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982), page 93

Websites:

Click the following links to see pages on mustard:

www.eXtension.org, Flowers in IsraelOld Dominion Plant Site – Bible Plants,   Sustainable Agriculture Research & Education, Wildflowers and Weeds, and  compare B. nigra to other mustards

Click the following to see featured photos on Flickr Creative Commons:

©2007 Forest & Kim Starr Brassica nigra flowering habit, ©2007 Matt Lavin Brassica nigra detail

Myrtle

Books:

T.H. Everett, Editor, New Illustrated Encyclopedia of Gardening (New York, Greystone Press, 1960), Volume 7, pages 1210-1211

Nogah Hareuveni, Nature in Our Biblical Heritage, translated from Hebrew and adapted by Helen Frenkley (Kiryat Ono, Israel: Neot Kedumim Ltd., Second Edition, 1996), pages 84-85

Harold N. and Alma L. Moldenke, Plants of the Bible (Waltham, Mass., Chronica Botanica Co., 1952), pages 143-44

Abbie Zabar, The Potted Herb (New York: Stewart, TAbori & Change, 1988) pages 48-49, 72

Anonymous, The Scripture Garden Walk, Comprising The Botanical Exposition and Natural History of Every Plant Occurring in the Sacred Scriptures (London, J. Hatchard and Son, 1832), pages 192-194

Websites:

Click the following links to see pages on myrtle:

www.civanonursery.comwww.flowersinisrael.com, www.monrovia.com on topiary, www.mountainvalleygrowers.com

Nigella

Books:

May S. Bsisu, The Arab Table (New York, HarperCollins Publishers, 2005), page 23

Rosalind Creasy, Cooking From the Garden, (San Francisco, Sierra Club Books, 1988), page 372

Eileen Gaden, Biblical Garden Cookery (Chappaqua, New York, Christian Herald Books, 1976), page 192

Linda Gray, Herbs and Spices (New York, Skyhorse Publishing, 2011), pages 96-98

Ian Hemphill, The Spice and Herb Bible: A Cook’s Guide (Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Robert Rose Inc., 2002), pages 157-58, 256-57

Niloufer Ichaporia King, My Bombay Kitchen: Traditional and Modern Parsi Home Cooking (Berkeley, California, The University of California Press, 2007), page 295

Harold N. and Alma L. Moldenke, Plants of the Bible (Waltham, Mass., Chronica Botanica Co., 1952), pages 152-53

Magaret Shaida, The Legendary Cuisine of Persia (Brooklyn, New York, Interlink Books, 2000), page 31

Winifred Walker, All the Plants of the Bible (New York, Harper & Brothers, 1957) pages 80-81

Michael Zohary, Plants of the Bible (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1982), page 91
Websites:

Click the following links to see pages on nigella:

All SpiceBlue Letter Bible, Gardeners HQKate’s Global Kitchen, Outside Pride, Seedaholic.com

Papyrus

Books:

T.H. Everett, Editor, New Illustrated Encyclopedia of Gardening, (New York, Greystone Press, 1960), Volume 3, pages 527-529

Duane A. Garrett, General Editor, Archaeological Study Bible, (Grand Rapids, Mich., Zondervan, 2005) pages 1755, 1859, 2037

Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium, Cornell University, Hortus Third, (New York, Macmillian Publishing Co., 1976), pages 355-56

Bill Laws, Fifty Plants that Changed the Course of History (Hove, England, Quid Publishing, 2010), pages 62-63

Peter Robinson, American Horticultural Society Complete Guide to Water Gardening (New York, DK Publishing, Inc., 1997), page 190

Websites:

Click the following links to see pages on papyrus:

Blue Letter BibleDave’s Garden, Pam Penick on ‘King Tut’ PapyrusYou Tube – Papyrus Paper-making, You Tube – How to Make Papyrus Paper,

Pistachio

Books:

Sally Butcher, The New Middle Eastern Vegetarian (Northampton, MA: Interlink, 2012), 182

Bob Flowerdew, The Complete Book of Fruit: A Practical Guide to Growing and Using Fruits and Nuts (New York, Penguin, 1995), 202 – 03

Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium, Cornell University, Hortus Third (New York, Macmillan, 1976), 71, 878 – 79

George Ray McEachern, Growing Fruits, Berries & Nuts Southwest-Southeast (Houston, Gulf Publishing, 1990), 72, appendix x

Jennifer Wilkinson, Nut Grower’s Guide: The Complete Handbook for Producers and Hobbyists (Collingwood VIC, Australia: Landlinks, 2005), 175 – 83, 222

Websites:

Click the following links to see pages on pistachio:

Blue Letter Bible– Pistachio, Blue Letter Biblebeten definition (Hebrew for “belly”), Pistachio flowers image

 

 

Pomegranate

Books:

Scott Calhoun, The Hot Garden (Tucson, Arizona, Rio Nueva Publishers, 2009), pages 86-87

T.H. Everett, Editor, New Illustrated Encyclopedia of Gardening, (New York, Greystone Press, 1960), Volume 10, page 1727

Bob Flowerdew, The Complete Book of Fruit, A Practical Guide to Growing and Using Fruits and Nuts (New York, Penguin Books USA, 1995), page 138

Taylor’s Encyclopedia of Gardening, Third Edition (H.M. Co., 1956), pages 877, 907

Alice Waters, Chez Panisse Fruit (New York, HarperCollins Publishers, 2002), pages 254-259

Websites:

Click the following links to see pages on pomegranates:

Flowers in Israel, Purdue University Center for New Crop & Plant Products – Julia Morton article; Joan Tous and Louise Ferguson articlePam Penick’s Digging In

Wheat

Articles & Books:

Troy Griepentrog, “Heirloom Wheat,” Heirloom Gardener (Fall 2011), pages 20 – 25

A. D. Livingston, The Whole Grain Cookbook (Guilford, CN: Lyons, 2000), pages 1 – 6, 58 – 67

Gene Logsdon, All Flesh Is Grass: The Pleasures and Promises of Pasture Farming (Athens: Ohio University Press, 2004), pages 194 – 95

Sara Pilzer, Homegrown Whole Grains (North Adams, MA: Storey, 2009), pages 26 – 27, 142 – 57

Websites:

Click the following links to see information on wheat:

Blue Letter BibleOld Dominion University Bible Plants

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